Proclamation No. 1081 was a presidential ordinance made by Ferdinand Marcos that corresponded to the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines. President Marcos signed the proclamation on 21 September 1972 and formally announced it during a live television and radio broadcast from Malacañang Palace on 23 September of the same year.
Take note that under established administrative standards and practices, a proclamation is one of the ordinance powers and a rulemaking authority of a head of state and in the case of the Philippines, of the president. These proclamations are intended to declare a status or condition of public moment or interest that serves as the basis for the operation of a particular law or regulation.
Apart from proclamations, general orders exemplify presidential rulemaking authority. Under established administrative practices in the Philippines, these general orders are acts and commands made by the president in his capacity as the head of government and commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The aforementioned proclamation from President Marcos came with six general orders nonetheless. These orders defined specific acts and commands that served as the initial operational foundation of Martial Law in the Philippines. Take note of the following general orders under Proclamation No. 1081:
1. General Order No. 1: Marcos proclaimed absolute control over the entire government. These included all government agencies and instrumentalities. Marcos also proclaimed the use of all powers of his office including his role as commander-in-chief of AFP.
2. General Order No. 2: Marcos directed the Minister of Defense to arrest and take into custody certain individuals whose names were listed in an accompanying appendix.
3. General Order No. 3: Marcos declared the continuous function of all government offices under existing officials and employees. These included government agencies and instrumentalities, local government units, and government owned or controlled corporations.
4. General Order No. 4: Marcos ordered the observance and enforcement of curfew across the Philippines. The curfew hours spanned from 12 a.m. to 4 a.m.
5. General Order No. 5: Marcos prohibited public demonstration and public assemblies. These included demonstrations in critical industries such as manufacturing or processing of essential commodities or products for exports. Demonstrations in hospitals and educational institutions were also prohibited.
6. General Order No. 6: Marcos prohibited to possession of firearms outside the residency of an individual. However, the government maintained a list of individuals who were exempted form the firearm ban.